How GPON Works
A GPON network is capable of transmitting ethernet, TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) as well as ATM traffic. A GPON network consists of OLT (Optical Line Terminals), ONU (Optical Network Unit), and a splitter. The splitter will divide the signal when needed. The OLT takes in all of the optical signals in the form of beams of light from ONUs and will convert it to an electrical signal.
An ONU connects to end users and will send their signals back to the OLT. A GPON network can reach up to 20 km and provide service up to 64 end users. GPON utilizes both upstream and downstream data by means of Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).